How To Maintain Forklift
The daily maintenance of forklift is a necessary process for forklift to be used continuously. The maintenance of forklift can be divided into four categories, namely, daily maintenance, first level maintenance, second level maintenance and third level maintenance. Daily maintenance should be carried out every day. Generally, the first level maintenance should be carried out after every 50 hours of work, the two level maintenance should be carried out after every 200 hours of work, and the three level maintenance should be carried out after every 600 hours of work. In this way, the service life of forklift can be extended.
In order to make the forklift work normally and reliably, and give full play to the potential capacity of forklift, regular maintenance measures should be taken. Technical maintenance measures, generally:
1. Daily maintenance, after each shift.
2. After 100 hours of technical maintenance, one shift work system is equivalent to 2 weeks.
3. After 500 hours of secondary technical maintenance, one shift work system is equivalent to one quarter.
1、 Routine maintenance
1. Clean the dirt, mud and dirt on the forklift. The key parts are: forklift and gantry slide, generator and starter, battery pole, water tank and air filter.
2. Check the fastening of each part, focusing on: fork support, lifting chain tension screw, wheel screw, wheel fixing pin, brake, steering gear screw.
3. Check the reliability and flexibility of the steering gear.
4. Check the leakage, focusing on: all pipe joints, diesel tank, oil tank, brake pump, lifting oil cylinder, tilt oil cylinder, water tank, water pump, engine oil pan, torque converter, transmission, drive axle, main reducer, hydraulic steering gear, steering oil cylinder.
5. Tire pressure inspection: if it is insufficient, it shall be supplemented to the specified value to ensure no air leakage. Check whether the ground and side of the tire are damaged and whether the rim is deformed.
6. Check the brake fluid and water volume: check whether the brake fluid is within the scale range, and check whether air is mixed in the brake pipeline. When adding brake fluid, prevent dust and water from mixing in. When adding water to the water tank, clean tap water shall be used. If antifreeze is used, the same antifreeze shall be added. When the water temperature is higher than 70 ℃, do not open the water tank cover. When opening the cover, pad a thin cloth and do not screw the water tank cover with gloves.
7. Check the engine oil quantity, hydraulic oil and electrolyte: first pull out the oil scale, wipe the head of the scale, then insert and then pull out to check whether the oil level is between the two scale lines. The oil level in the working oil tank shall be between two scale lines; if there is too little oil, air will be mixed in the pipeline, and too much oil will overflow from the cover plate. The battery electrolyte should also be between the upper and lower scale lines. If not, add distilled water to the top line.
8. Inspection for brake pedal, inching pedal, clutch pedal and hand brake: depress each pedal to check whether there is abnormal dullness or jamming. The force of the hand brake handle shall be less than 300N, to confirm the safety and reliability of the hand brake.
9. Inspection for belt, horn, light, instrument, etc.: check whether the belt tightness meets the requirements. If there is no adjustment allowance or damage or crack, replace it; the horn, light and instrument shall be normal and effective.
10. Remove the oil filter deposits.
2、 First level technical maintenance
Follow the "routine maintenance" project and add the following work.
1. Check the cylinder pressure or vacuum.
2. Check and adjust the valve clearance.
3. Check whether the thermostat works normally.
4. Check whether the multi-way reversing valve, lifting oil cylinder, tilt oil cylinder, steering oil cylinder and gear pump work normally.
5. Check the transmission for proper shift operation.
6. Check and adjust the clearance between the brake pads of the hand and foot brakes and the brake drum.
7. Change the oil in the oil pan, check whether the crankcase ventilation pipe is in good condition, and clean the oil filter and diesel filter element.
8. Check whether the installation of generator and starter motor is firm, whether the connection head is clean and firm, and whether the carbon brush and commutator are worn.
9. Check the tightness of the fan belt.
10. Check whether the wheels are firmly installed, whether the tyre pressure meets the requirements, and remove the sundries embedded in the tread.
11. The parts are disassembled due to maintenance work, and the road test of forklift shall be carried out after reassembly.
(1) The braking performance under different degrees shall be free of deviation and hunting. On steep slopes, it can stop reliably after the hand brake is tightened.
(2) Listen to whether the engine operates under the conditions of acceleration, deceleration, heavy load or no-load, etc. for abnormal sound.
(3) After a test drive, check the brake, transmission, front axle housing and gear pump for overheating.
(4) Whether the forklift lifting speed is normal and whether there is shaking.
12. Check whether the filter screen at the oil inlet of the diesel tank is blocked or damaged, and clean or replace the filter screen.
3、 Secondary technical maintenance
In addition to the first level technical maintenance items, the following work shall be added:
1. Clean the oil tank, filter screen and pipeline, and check whether there is corrosion and crack. After cleaning, do not use the gauze head with fiber and cloth to wipe.
2. Clean the torque converter and transmission, check the wear of parts, and replace with new oil.
3. Check the drive shaft bearing and change the direction of cardan cross as required.
4. Check the fastening condition of each part of the drive axle and whether there is oil leakage and vent hole. Dismantle and inspect the main reducer, differential and wheel reducer, adjust the axial clearance of bearing, and add or replace lubricating oil.
5. Dismantle, check, adjust and lubricate the front and rear hubs, and rotate the axle shafts.
6. Clean the brake and adjust the clearance between the brake drum and the brake shoe friction plate.
6. Clean the steering gear and check the free rotation of the steering wheel.
8. Dismantle and clean the gear oil pump, pay attention to check the wear of gear, housing and bearing.
9. Disassemble the multiway valve and check the valve stem