What Are The Forklift Composition
Although different forklifts have a customized difference in structure, their basic structures are roughly the same. They are generally composed of power units, lifting devices, forklift chassis (including transmission systems, steering systems, braking systems, driving systems) and electrical equipment composition.
(1) Power plant
The function of the power unit is to provide the power source for each working mechanism of the forklift, to ensure the power required by the forklift working device for loading and unloading cargo and the normal operation of the forklift. The basic forms of forklift power units are internal combustion forklifts and electric forklifts.
(2) Lifting device
The lifting working device is composed of a working device directly performing loading and unloading operations and a hydraulic control system.
a. Working device: The function of the forklift working device is to complete the fork picking, unloading, lifting, and stacking operations. It is mainly composed of outer mast, inner mast, fork frame, fork, chain and guide pulley.
b. Hydraulic control system: Its role is to transfer the energy of the engine (or electric motor) to the working device of the forklift, in order to achieve the lifting of the cargo and the front and rear tilt of the mast. It is mainly composed of oil pump, safety valve, distribution valve, working cylinder, throttle valve, fuel tank, filter and oil pipe. Among them, the oil pump is a mechanism that converts mechanical energy into liquid pressure energy; the oil cylinder is a mechanism that converts liquid pressure energy into mechanical energy; safety valves, distribution valves, and throttle valves are mechanisms that control the pressure, flow, and flow direction of liquids; Filters and tubing are the mechanisms that ensure reliable, stable, and long-lasting work in hydraulic systems. Through these mechanisms, different working cycles of the hydraulic oil circuit are realized, thereby meeting the requirements of various working performances of the forklift.
(3) Forklift chassis
a. Transmission system
Its main role is to efficiently, economically and reliably transmit the power from the power unit to the driving wheels. In order to meet the requirements of forklift driving, the drive train must have functions such as changing speed, changing torque, and changing driving direction.
b. Steering system
Its role is to change the driving direction of the forklift or keep the forklift driving straight. Forklifts rely on steering to deflect a certain angle on the road to achieve steering. There are three types of forklift steering: mechanical steering, hydraulic power steering and full hydraulic steering.
I. Mechanical steering mechanism is generally composed of steering gear and steering transmission mechanism. The role of the steering gear is to increase the force transmitted by the steering wheel to the steering arm and change the direction of force transmission. The function of the steering transmission mechanism is to transmit the force transmitted by the steering gear to the steering wheels, so as to deflect and realize the steering of the forklift.
Forklift major system and component
II. The main difference between the hydraulic power steering mechanism and the mechanical steering mechanism is the addition of a hydraulic steering booster. Therefore, the driver can perform steering with only a small amount of force.
III. The difference between full hydraulic steering and mechanical steering and hydraulic power steering is that the hydraulic connection is completely replaced by the hydraulic components from the steering gear to the steering trapezoidal mechanism. Therefore, it has light operation, easy installation and light weight. Small size, convenient for overall layout, etc.
c. Braking system
The function of the forklift braking system is to make the forklift decelerate or stop quickly, and to make the forklift stably parked in a proper place to prevent slipping.
The braking system of a forklift generally includes two sets of independent braking devices, namely a service braking device and a parking braking device. The service braking device guarantees proper deceleration or parking of the forklift during driving. Each wheel is equipped with a wheel brake. Its operating device can be divided into mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic. The parking brake device keeps the forklift in place and helps to get off the ramp. The parking brake system can also be used simultaneously with the service brake system during emergency braking, or emergency use when the service brake system fails.
d. Driving system
The driving system withstands and transmits the forces and moments acting between the forklift wheel and the road surface; alleviates the impact of the road surface on the forklift truck; and reduces the vibration of the forklift truck while driving.
The travel system of a general forklift consists of axles, frames, wheels and suspensions.
(4) Electrical equipment
Electrical equipment includes power generation equipment and electrical equipment. It is mainly composed of generator, starter, battery, lighting, and instrument.