What Is The Overall Structure Of Forklift
Although different forklifts have a custom-made difference in structure, their basic structure is roughly the same. They are generally composed of power units, lifting work devices, forklift chassis (including transmission system, steering system, braking system, driving system) and electrical equipment. .
(1) Power unit
The function of the power unit is to provide power source for each working mechanism of the forklift, and to ensure the power required for loading and unloading the forklift working device and the normal operation of the forklift. The basic forms of forklift power units are internal combustion forklifts and electric forklifts.
(2) Lifting work device
The lifting work device is composed of a working device and a hydraulic control system that directly perform loading and unloading operations.
a. Working device:
The function of the forklift working device is to complete the forklifting, unloading, lifting, stacking operation of the cargo, mainly composed of the outer door frame, the inner door frame, the fork frame, the fork, the chain and the guiding pulley.
b. Hydraulic control system:
Its function is to transfer the energy of the engine (or electric motor) to the working device of the forklift in order to achieve the lifting of the cargo and the front and rear tilting of the gantry. Mainly composed of oil pump, safety valve, distribution valve, working cylinder, throttle valve, fuel tank, filter and oil pipe. Among them, the oil pump converts mechanical energy into
A mechanism for fluid pressure energy; a cylinder is a mechanism for converting liquid pressure energy into mechanical energy; a safety valve, a distribution valve, and a throttle valve are mechanisms for controlling the pressure, flow, and flow direction of the liquid; the fuel tank, the filter, and the oil pipe are hydraulically guaranteed. A system that is reliable, stable, and long-lasting. Through these mechanisms, different working cycles of the hydraulic oil circuit are realized, thereby meeting the requirements of various working performances of the forklift.
(3) forklift chassis
Its main function is to transmit the power from the power unit to the drive wheels efficiently, economically and reliably. In order to be able to adapt to the requirements of forklift travel, the drive train must have functions such as changing speed, changing torque and changing the direction of travel.
b. steering system
Its role is to change the direction of the forklift or keep the forklift straight. The forklift relies on steering to deflect a certain angle on the road surface to achieve steering. Forklift steering is available in three types: mechanical steering, hydraulic power steering and full hydraulic steering.
I. Mechanical steering mechanisms generally consist of a steering gear and a steering gear. The role of the steering gear is to increase the force transmitted by the steering wheel to the steering arm and to change the direction of force transmission. The function of the steering gear is to transmit the force transmitted by the steering gear to the steering wheel and deflect it to realize the steering of the forklift.
II. The main difference between the hydraulic power steering mechanism and the mechanical steering mechanism is the addition of a hydraulic steering booster, so that the driver can operate with a small force to achieve steering.
III. The difference between full hydraulic steering and mechanical steering and hydraulic power steering is that the mechanical connection is completely replaced by hydraulic components from the start of the steering gear to the steering trapezoidal mechanism, thus being light in operation, easy to install, and light in weight. The size is small, which is convenient for the overall layout.
c. Brake system
The purpose of the forklift brake system is to enable the truck to decelerate or stop quickly, and to keep the truck in a stable position to prevent slipping.
The brake system of a forklift generally includes two independent brake devices, namely a service brake device and a parking brake device. The service brake ensures that the forklift is in motion
Properly decelerating or stopping, each of its wheels is equipped with wheel brakes, and its operating devices can be divided into mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic. The parking brake ensures that the forklift is parked in place and helps to start on the ramp. The parking brake system can also be used simultaneously with the service brake system during emergency braking or emergency when the service brake system fails.
d. Driving system
The driving system bears and transmits the forces and moments acting between the forklift wheel and the road surface; mitigates the impact of the road surface on the forklift; and reduces the vibration of the forklift when driving. The driving system of a general forklift consists of an axle, a frame, a wheel and a suspension.
(4) Electrical equipment
Electrical equipment includes power generation equipment and electrical equipment. Mainly composed of generators, starters, batteries, lighting, instruments and so on.